UN Security Council resolutions
United Nations Security Council resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1540 (2004) address, among other things, the threat of nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation and call for national, regional and international cooperation to strengthen the global response to these challenges to international security. The IAEA provides, on request, assistance to the UN Committees established in relation to Security Council resolutions 1373 and 1540. Additionally, the Office assists States, where appropriate, in meeting their obligations under these resolutions.
Security Council resolution 1373, which was adopted in 2001 under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, notes with concern the close connection between international terrorism and the illegal movement of nuclear materials. The resolution emphasizes the need to enhance coordination of national, regional and international efforts in order to strengthen a global response to this serious challenge and threat to international security. The resolution obliges all States to criminalize assistance for terrorist activities, deny financial support and safe haven to terrorists and exchange information for the prevention and prosecution of criminal acts.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1540 was adopted in 2004 under Chapter VII and obliges all States to adopt and enforce appropriate effective laws which prohibit non-State actors to manufacture, acquire, possess, develop, transport, transfer or use nuclear weapons, in particular for terrorist purposes, and to establish domestic controls to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, including the establishment of appropriate controls over related material. To this end, States are obliged to implement a variety of accountancy and control measures. These include: physical protection measures; border controls; measures to detect, deter, prevent and combat illicit trafficking; and import and export control measures.